This sort of field, in the UK at least, is very compeititve so do as much voluntary work and get as much work experience as you can.

Not much to be honest because it sounds like you're working with fairly basic chemicals and equipment. In a research lab you'd most likely use a kit optimised for your starting material.

It's very dependent on the type of cell and what the functions of the molecule are. Some may be involved in signalling or may only be needed when the cell is stimulated.

Agar is a jelly like substance on which you can grow bacteria and other microorganisms. Different bacteria like different types of agar so have a look at what your bacteria like and buy that one.

Blood is made up of all sorts of things and it's composition isn't fixed so I don't think it has a charge.

(posted in General Biology)

This may be a good place to start your reading: … itions.pdf

Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria.
T4 cells are a type of white blood cell (lymphocyte) found in humans which help fight infection.
Wikipedia might help.

The cell wall is quite porous. Porins are specific in what they allow in and are found in the plasma membrane.

The cells are still protected by the plasma membrane.

NESs are for proteins. Read more here:

Nuclear export of mRNA is detailed here: … 3.full.pdf

I'm assuming you mean to ask if channel proteins can phosphorylate their substrates and from my basic reading it looks like the answer is yes but it's an area of active research.

Don't worry about the prestige of the institute. Go where you will be able to work with the best people in the field doing the research that interests you the most and is cutting edge. Think about the facilities, collaborations and opportunities for career development.

Have a look at course structures to work out differences. At this stage go with what interests you most as you will develop your interests as you go along. There is no difference between the courses in terms of career prospects. If you want to stay in science you will need to do a masters if not a PhD after your undergrad degree.

Scientists generally work in research, industry (pharma, biotech) or government organisations (public health, environment, defense etc). In the UK you need to do at least a BSc if not a masters and/or PhD.

You'll have to do some research around this but from my basic reading I think you need to do large animal specialist training: … ed_Kingdom

There are different types of dopamine receptors and they have different functions:

Sodium potassum pumps pump Na+ ions out but other mechanisms either produce them inside the cell or pump them in.

There are several molecular and cellular mechanisms for narcotic addiction and there's a lot of research around them. And yes current research is focused on developing non-addictive narcotics. Google is a good place to start.

Babies start to remember things after about 12 months because the brain simply isn't developed enough.

Pain receptors exist at a cellular level so no they cannot be removed. There are people who feel no pain and are otherwise normal: … ty_to_pain

This is a good place to start your research: … sulin.html

Mad cow disease in humans is caused by eating beef products contaminated with nervous system tissue from infected cattle. These are normally removed from food products but in the UK it was found that cattle were being fed the remains of older (infected) cattle which is what caused the outbreak.

It is possible and has been done but generally there are a number of considerations. The DNA may be universal but DNA expression machinery and protein production machinery isn't. Also, bacteria are lower down the evolutionary chain than we are so we can probably do most of what they do better though there are exceptions.

38 ATP molecules are formed but 2 are used up in glycolysis so net yield of ATP is 36 molecules.

All crossovers don't cause a deletion and all deletions aren't caused by crossovers. As in the Wiki article there are other things that cause deletions too. DNA breakage can be caused by a number of things and when the DNA repair mechanisms don't work properly you can get deletions.

The genes are on the same loci in homologous chromosomes but the genes may not have the same alleles due to crossover.

Have a look at this article:

Viroids are not known to cause disease in animal cells but that doesn't mean that they can't infect them. The answers aren't completely clear yet though.

You can read more about prions here:

(posted in Plants & Fungi)

Have a look at this article:

(posted in Genes, Genetics and DNA)

Have a look at this article: … _evolution

There are always Hs floating around in water so they all don't come from glucose.

The helicase unwinds the DNA strands and RNA polymerase splits them apart i.e breaks the H bonds between them.

(posted in Fossils)

To protect your eyes in case something goes wrong.

(posted in General Biology)


This isn't really my area of expertise but I'd be more tempted to go with the explanation that the number of enzymes increases and hence the metabolic efficiency increases rather than the efficiency of each individual enzyme increases.

This is a good place to start your research: … NA_studies

Quite a while I'd imagine. Donor blood can sometimes be travelling all day like this but the sooner it's used the better.

Organelles don't disappear and reappear. They duplicate and then separate into the two new cells formed.

Water will lyse the cells by osmotic shock. In my experiments, 10-15mins does it.

Have a read of these and they might lead you to further reading: … 341200106X

There are serious ethical and practical issues around human cloning so while it may be possible in theory I don't think it's been tried.

These two articles should help:

(posted in General Biology)

Have a read of this:

Have a read of this:

Genotype will be affected because the genetic information can come from two different sources but phenotype and viability may or may not be affected depending on what the genes carried by the two types of mtDNA do. This is all hypothetical so there are no real answers. Have a look at this:

These might help: … er-dinner/ … ous_system

Cooking probably kills the actual seedling and denatures all the enzymes.

From my reading I've found that bacteria can produce beta carotene but not use it.

Have a look at this: … rev5.shtml

Traits are heritable through the genotype. Characteristics are the expression of the genotype into the phenotype; the effects of the environment.

Have a read of the meiosis section of this: … is-meiosis