(posted in General Biology)

I think you mean lysosomes:
They aren't specific but generally degrade what's in the phagocytosed vacuoles and what's left after the degradation process (bear in mind that this isn't 100% efficient) is what is displayed on the cell surface as antigens.

This might help:
http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/ … 788492.htm

This should help:
Tigers and lions are different species.

Read more here:

Genetic material exists as chromatin in the nucleus. During the cell cycle the DNA replicates and two sister chromatids (identical chromosomes) are held together by a centromere and hence the X shape. Each chromatid is a single DNA molecule.

(posted in General Biology)

Mitosis is part of the normal cell cycle. Meiosis is part of the process by which the gametes are formed and not all cells undergo the process.

(posted in General Biology)

Maybe think about something in ecology, conservation or marine biology. Please do bear in mind though that jobs in these fields are competitive and difficult to come by. It's a good idea to collect some work experience through volunteering. Also, jobs may not be as 'glamorous' as you think they may be in terms of being able to travel etc.

From my reading it looks like some phosphatases in sweet potatoes have disulphide bonds and some don't so I don't think their activity depends on the bonds. However, if the enzyme is denatured then it won't work.


Have a read of these articles:

There are 4 nucleotides that make up DNA and neither one is preferred so As and Gs make up 50% and Cs and Ts make up 50% of the population of DNA nucleotides (i.e each nucleotide makes up 25% of the population). There isn't much to source, it's basic maths.

Read more here:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complemen … (genetics)

The membrane of cells is basically a phospholipid bilayer. Things add to and bud off from it all the time so overall there is no effect on how big it is.

(posted in Plants & Fungi)

They are dicots:

Environmental stimuli such as creams can have different effects on cells. If the cream did something purely physical to the cells such as dried them out then the effect wouldn't be passed on during replication but if it affected the genetics of the cells then it would be passed on. In this case I don't think the cells will 'remember'.

Two cells with 12 chromosomes each.

The alcohol and acid are for fixing the tissue and making it easier to stain it. Neither damages the tissue.

Different cell populations in a gland or tissue will have different functions. Lots will come from a single or a few stem cell populations and then differentiate depending on signals from the environment and each other. We have different types of stem cells in different parts of our bodies.

Have aread of these articles:

Most proteins will have secondary and tertiary structures which prevent the N or C termini from just floating.

Have a read of this:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direction … r_biology)

I'm not sure what differences between the two strands you're talking about.

Genes can be present on either strand and are read accordingly in the 5' to 3' direction.

Interleukin-2 immunotherapy. What you may be thinking of is this:
http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-c … kin-or-il2

It sounds like the experiment was done to determine whether the protein bound to either a poly A molecule, a poly U molecule or glutathione and that the result was that it binds the first two but not the third. I'm not sure what the context of the research is but I suspect that glutathione was the negative control because it's a protein whereas poly A and poly U tails are both found on RNA molecules.
Sepharose beads are chemically inert and so wouldn't interfere with the reaction. They're also porous and can be linked to various molecules (poly U, poly A, glutathione) so can easily allow the protein of interest to pass through them and interact with what's linked to them.

Have a look at this:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleotid … egradation

There isn't just one type of wildlife biology job so what job you end up taking will depend on what your priorities and circumstances are at the time. You most certainly will be able to make time for a family. As you get more senior the amount of paperwork does increase but there is a good chance you'll have an admin team to help. How much public engagement you do and what form it takes is up to you.

Exonucleases work at the 3' or 5' ends. Endonucleases work in the middle of polynucleotide chains. See:

The term 'osome' is just used to describe a collection of proteins that interacts with the enhancer for it to work. So it can be used similary for a silencer. And yes a single gene can be regulated by more than one enhancer. See:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enhancer_ … robustness

Any genes expressed by the sex chromosomes are sex linked.

No for a number of reasons.
You can take DNA from one organism and put it in another but whether the gene is expressed, the protein is made or not and the protein does what it's supposed to or not is a different story. Also, more than one gene usually codes for a specific trait and regulates it and getting several bits of DNA into an organism successfully and getting them all to work can be very difficult. Finally, there are ethical considerations as well.

(posted in Research and Careers)

Probably to either turn off the mutated gene or modify it to correct the mutation. You can read more here:

You can probably look at how a particular nutrient denatures/is modified over time/temperature of cooking. Different methods of ccoking and temperatures may not necessarily denature proteins but may do various things to them including make them completely useless or modify them into something else. This changes how or if the body can absorb them or do anything useful with them.

I can't seem to find a simple answer to your question and I'm not an expert but from my reading I've gathered that the fruit doesn't contain a vascular network. Instead the plant 'deposits' water into the fruit. Also, the ovary from which the fruit develops contains the nutrition for the fruit to develop.

Evaporation is a natural process by which water is lost from a surface by conversation into water vapour. Transpiration is a regulated process by which water is transported through the plant to be lost by evaporation.

Icy water may have ice on top but the bottom usually always stays in liquid form. And yes fish to have anti-freeze proteins which help them survive.

DNA helicase unwinds the DNA helix so that two strands of DNA are visible for both DNA replication and transcription. RNA polymerase separates the strands (i.e breaks the H bonding) to carry out transcription.

Both nucleotides are floating around in the cell readily so it's what gets picked up and is complementary to the template that's used.

Here you go:
http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/ … 110901.asp

It depends on how the study is designed, what the biological readout is and how it's affected by gender, if at all, and how easy it is to recruit study participants. Most people will do what is called a power calculation when designing a study to work out how many people they need for the study to give it the statistical power to pick up differences between study participants.

That's right. See this section of the article:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homologou … #In_humans

It does reform after telophase 1.

We don't know yet which is why there are still so many people living with the virus.

(posted in General Biology)

I don't think you can. Enzymes have optimum temperatures are which they work best and ranges within which they can function.

(posted in Plants & Fungi)

This is a good place to start:

(posted in Evolution)

This is a good place to start:

Have a read of this:
http://www.madsci.org/posts/archives/20 … .Mi.r.html

(posted in Plants & Fungi)

There are other proteins involved which have similar functions to the centrosome. Have a read of this review:

(posted in Genes, Genetics and DNA)

Transport of things into and out of the nucleus is very tightly regulated so things that shouldn't be in there can't get in.

I don't think it is stored. The amount of testosterone in the body is tightly regulated. The correct amount is produced and extra is degraded. The body doesn't need to store it to make more.

I don't think we know (or there is) one answer for how many times a single molecule of NADH can be recycled but the body produces and has a lot of it so there's usually always plenty to go around, more being made and molecules being degraded.

Cyclic phosphorylation is part of photosynthesis. Read more here:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photophos … horylation

(posted in Mammals)

No because cell surface antigens are affected by what type of cell it is, it's activation state and it's environment. The puppy will carry identical genes to the male dog but the genes aren't necessary identically expressed.