see … p?id=13422 … p?id=13465

(posted in Fossils)

sorr no-one seems to know the answer to your question.

the url below should help. other than that its unlikley we will be able to provide any other info. … ofMan.html

(posted in Fishes (Including Sharks))


all drug development programme are confidential to that company. there are any number of reasons why a company might decide not to proceed with a particular programme, all of which would be again confidential.

Bottom line there is no way to tell if a compound is progressing until it moves into a registered clinical trial. also note they may use a different name/acronym from that originally described.

yes fish can detect vibrations well. see:

you mean yeast can synthesise all 20 amino-acids where as higher organisms can't - hence the term "essential amino acids". for possible reasons see: … t=Abstract

great question and yes I'd say it is still a comprehensive and up to date definition (as well as being beautifully written).

focusing on:
Biological evolution ... is change in the properties of populations of organisms that transcend the lifetime of a single individual.

don't forget that epigenetics only affects gene expression in an individual and not a whole population. there are thought to be cases where an epigenetic change can be transgenerationally inherited but that is still work in progress. see

no it is not possible they are different species (let alone one is a mammal and one an crustacean) which by definition can't mate. The fact they have the same number of chromosomes is irrelevant.

(posted in Evolution)

agreed and to add, new mutations (what ever their inheritance pattern) are occuring all the time.

agreed and to add, none of what you describe is technically or ethically scientifically possible at present in humans. If it ever possible is it will be many decades away.

sorry no-one seems to know the answer to your question.

sorry no-one seems to know the answer to your question.

See section on X inactivation in the link below. … emophilia/

sorry no-one seems to know the answer to your question.

sorry no-one seems to know the answer to your question.

rarely yes. see
Cardiovascular harms

(posted in Plants & Fungi)

many seeds contain green pigments that are not dependent on photosynthesis. see

it is not my area of expertise but the available literature would imply not, probably since they secrets their own oils and thus so not need the dust bath to keep their feathers clean.

(posted in Human Biology and Evolution)

Many people have postulated reasons for the evolution of male facial hair and obviously there is no one correct reason. Warmth and inhibition of biting insects are possible for hunters but I think most scientists would agree that it is a by-product of increased testosterone levels compared to females. The reason for the testosterone has very little to do with facial hair - rather reproduction and aggressive/defensive behaviours.

your post is a bit unclear, but all human have "instincts" as you describe. Due to pesron to person genetic differences  there will definitely be variation in those behaviours. it is not possible at present to predict for an individual how they will react to any given stimulus.


This is a UK based site and googling the term, other than a nuber of suppliers in India of the seeds I can find nothing about them.

sorry no-one seems to know the answer to your question.

agreed - consider volunteering ar wild life or nature reserves, zoos, vets, etc

(posted in General Biology)

The term is used very broadly and can be applied to many different organs. Overall I would say the term does principally include living cells but not necessarily exclusively so.

(posted in Plants & Fungi)

you need to read a book on the basics of gardening and what seeds will grow where geographically. just burying a whole fruit is unlikely to result any time soon in a fruit tree. The yeast will have no appreciable effect on decomposition in this context.

give what you have told us I would guess the bones should be fairly clean in about 6 months.

none of what you describe is technically or ethically scientifically possible at present in humans. If it ever possible is it will be many years if not decades away. Even then the idea one would be able able to do a functional brain transplant and the memories and personality of one individual could sucessfully be placed in another body seems unlikely to me, based on our current leevls of knowledge of the how the brain works.

agreed and chemicals such as phenol and chloroform are routine in many molecular biology labs which for obvious reasons could not be used in schools.

sorry no-one seems to know the answer to your question. I have looked into your question regarding dormant forms and am unable to find any details on this.

sorry no-one seems to know the answer to your question.

its a great question! the length of survival time varies from virus to virus considerably but he basic premise the it remains infectious for longer on hard as opposed to porous surfaces appears to be correct. The reason(s) are very unclear but presumably will involve greater rate of degradation and/or less stable viral particles on the porous surface.

sorry no-one seems to know the answer to your question.

(posted in Birds)

see below for more details on "crop milk". I can find no information or scientific publications on any attempts to commercialise a synthetic substitute. I suspect it will be very difficult and expensive to generate which is why it has not been done thus far. … _Milk.html

blood definately does go through the embryonic LV! see … ung01.html

Very difficult to say without a number of close ups from different angles, each with a tape measure or ruler in the shot. Alternatively you could take it to your local museum and ask the curator to take look at it.

it's really semantics Mike!

As you correctly say almost all differences between individuals (human or otherwise) will be down to subtle changes in the expression (levels and timings) of hundreds of different genes.

Separately there is the issue relating to race ie whether human sub-populations (however they are defined eg based on colour of skin, geographical origins etc) are somehow different from each other and have identifiable and measurable characteristics. For the most part the answer is no, hence my comment that there is no evidence for major genetics differences between these sub-populations (aka races) as opposed to differences between individuals.

Hope that's clearer!

the overall Ph of blood is 7.4.

(posted in General Biology)

your question is unclear. collagen and HA are separate and production of one is not dependent on the other.

short answer - no!

Cheese is produced from milk. Rennet acts on the proteins in milk, causing them to coalesce into a gel-like curd which is the beginning of cheese.

blood does not have the high fat content of milk nor the relevant proteins so adding rennet to human blood will not produce anything that resembles cheese.

Q1: you are right the figures vary as does the cited percentage of the human genome that are ERVs. that is because the definition of an ERV (many are fragments) will vary from study to study and also the annotation of the human genome is getting better and more details and thus the number rises. Most recent papers would say 6-8%. see

Q2: the paper comparing the 2 genomes is below and as you can see there is discussion on full length and functional ERVs which is somewhat different to total fragments. As above as the annotation and details of the 2 genomes improve and are compared better figures will arise. There are cetainly many examples where ERVs are very similar between the 2 species. … rt=classic … 04072.html

(posted in Birds)

this is a general biology site, principally for children. I would suggest you contact your local bird watching society or the RSPB.

Sorry no one seems to know the answer to your question.

(posted in Evolution)

You need to check your facts and have been misinformed! primate nails and hair grow continuously throughout life just as occurs in humans. they then get worn down and shed due to use.

difficult to say for sure. certainly some pigeons do return to nest in the same place. I am afraid you will just have to wait till next year to find out!

yes the human  brain is quite often fixed in preservatives for months to years. If you mean can the brain be put in some sort of stasis and the "reawakened" and function again - definitely not! There is at present no way to remove the brain from a human and keep it functional.

(posted in Evolution)

cervical ribs are developmental abnormalities that are not normally inherited and thus occur just in the affected individual. Whilst they usually do little harm they have no particular advantage either. Therefore they have no real bearing or "purpose" from an evolutionary perspective.

see … d-taxonomy