hello,
so frogs (amphibians in general) have external fertilization because the female excretes the eggs outside and the male pours his semen over them.
my textbook says that amphibians have external fertilization, but it also says that froga are oviparous. How is this possible since oviparity is a way of internal fertilization?
thanks

see
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oviparity

Just to add that, despite suggested changes in terminology the vast majority of zoologists simply mean egg-laying when they say oviparous (i.e. internal vs external fertilisation is not really implied by this word as we normally use it - though this may change).

Also, if you want to add some more complexity... some frogs are actually ovoviviparous (as are qute a lot of fish). This involves eggs being internally fertilised but then retained within the female until they hatch and live young emerge.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ovoviviparity